Guide Global pesticide resistance in arthropods

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Such landscape studies are now more feasible because of new genomic and technological innovations that could be used to compare the efficacy of strategies for preventing weed and insect resistance. That's the takeaway recommendation from a North Carolina State University review paper addressing pesticide resistance published today in the journal Science.

Pesticide resistance exacts a tremendous toll on the U.

Global Pesticide Resistance in Arthropods

Costs could also increasingly accrue on human lives. If insecticide-coated bed nets and complementary insecticide spraying failed to slow the transmission of malaria by pesticide-resistant mosquitoes, for example, the human health costs in places like Africa could be catastrophic. Weed species have evolved resistance to every class of herbicide in use, and more than arthropods have resistance to at least one pesticide. Consider glyphosate, the powerhouse weed killer used ubiquitously in the United States to protect major crops like corn and soybeans. A bit more than 20 years ago, crops were genetically engineered to withstand glyphosate, allowing them to survive exposure to the chemical while weeds perished.

By , some 90 percent of planted U. Unfortunately, as the evolutionary arms race progresses, many weeds have figured out how to evolve resistance to glyphosate, making the chemical increasingly ineffective and forcing farmers to look for other or new solutions. Some of these "new" solutions are actually old, as the herbicides 2,4-D and Dicamba, developed in the s and s, respectively, are currently getting a second look as possible widespread weed weapons. But the current incentives don't seem to be right for getting us off this treadmill.

Besides ecology and economics, the authors stress that sociological and political perspectives also set up roadblocks to solving the problems of pest resistance. Cultural practices by farmers—whether they till their land or not, how they use so-called refuges in combination with genetically modified crop areas and even how often they rotate their crops—all play a big role in pest resistance. The authors propose large-scale studies that would test the efficacy of a particular pesticide resistance strategy in one large area—thousands of acres or more—and how weeds and crop yields compare to large "control" areas that don't utilize that particular strategy.

Farmers would receive incentives to participate; perhaps subsidies already allocated to farmers could be shifted to provide these participatory incentives, the authors suggest. Explore further. More from Biology and Medical.

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Read more. Your feedback will go directly to Science X editors. Thank you for taking your time to send in your valued opinion to Science X editors. You can be assured our editors closely monitor every feedback sent and will take appropriate actions. Your opinions are important to us. We do not guarantee individual replies due to extremely high volume of correspondence.

E-mail the story Pesticide resistance needs attention, large-scale study Your friend's email Your email I would like to subscribe to Science X Newsletter. To expedite progress, we urge scientists in the public and private sectors to publish and analyze their resistance monitoring data in conjunction with relevant information on management practices, including the history of pest exposure to the pesticide.

Systematic analyses of such data can yield insights about the relationship between management practices and resistance evolution Hutchison et al. In general, the sooner steps are taken to delay resistance, the more likely they are to succeed. Finally, rather than debating definitions of resistance, we encourage discussion and analysis on a case-by-case basis engaging resistance experts, agricultural economists, stakeholders, industry scientists, and regulators to determine the management actions that will be most useful in response to specific data on the magnitude, distribution, and impact of resistance.

We thank Mark Sisterson and two anonymous reviewers for comments on the manuscript; and Gene Reagan, James Ottea, and Patricia Pietrantonio for their contributions to earlier drafts of definitions of resistance terms in response to the EPA initiative. Funding was provided by U. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.


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Large-scale, spatially explicit test of the refuge strategy for delaying insecticide resistance. Molecular systematics and insecticide resistance in the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus.

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Resistance to Bt corn by western corn rootworm Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae in the U. Desh Gujarat. State wise figures of cotton production in India in last four years, even with lower production Gujarat continues to top. Resistance evolution to the first generation of genetically modified Diabrotica -active Bt-maize events by western corn rootworm: management and monitoring considerations.

Consensus recommendation: managing western corn rootworm resistance to Bt on the fringe. Evolution, ecology and management of resistance in Helicoverpa spp. Successes and challenges of managing resistance in Helicoverpa armigera to Bt cotton in Australia.

Pesticide resistance needs attention, large-scale study

Environmental Protection Agency. Biopesticides Registration Action Document. Corn Seed Blend. Notice of Pesticide Registration — Fungicide Resistance Action Committee. FRAC list of plant pathogenic organisms resistant to disease control agents. Field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm: predictions from the laboratory and effects in the field. Western corn rootworm and Bt maize: challenges of pest resistance in the field.

Initial frequency of alleles for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in field populations of Heliothis virescens.