Most of the letters and interviews in Part II concern Bartok's travels and emigration as they reflected on his personal life and artistic evolution. Part III presents early critical assessments of Bartok's work as well as literary and poetic responses to his music and personality. Seller Inventory AAH Seller Inventory LIE Seller Inventory M Paperback or Softback.
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The Italian setting may be clearly felt in this intensely melodic and passionate work we know that Glinka met Bellini during his travels. Four years before his breakthrough opera A Life for the Tsar, the year-old Glinka was not only in full command of the style of the day but showed considerable originality in the linking of the four movements: there is a striking bridge section leading from the Beethoven-inspired scherzo into the bel canto of the slow movement; and the thematic material of the tempestuous first movement returns, modified and abridged, in the finale.
To the same generation belonged Pyotr Tchaikovsky, who for a while was seen as standing in opposition to the Balakirev circle, although by the end of the 19th century that opposition had lost whatever relevance it might once have had. He may have made some disparaging remarks about the Kuchka in his conversations with Robert Craft, but he paid tribute to Mussorgsky when he and Ravel re-orchestrated Khovanshchina for Sergei Diaghilev in Alexander Glazunov is the oldest composer on our program with whom Stravinsky was personally acquainted, even if their relationship was rather cool, to put it mildly.
This in spite of the fact that the young Stravinsky took Glazunov as a model when he composed his Symphony in E-flat, Op.
Bard Music Festival: Stravinsky and His World by Fisher Center at Bard - Issuu
There is a touching anecdote about their late contact in Beverly Hills in We shall hear two of the Ten Preludes, Op. Nikolai Medtner and Mikhail Gnesin were almost exact contemporaries of Stravinsky.
Medtner, who was close to Rachmaninoff, both stylistically and personally, concentrated mostly on piano music including three concertos and songs, including numerous inspired settings of Pushkin poems. Gnesin studied with Rimsky-Korsakov around the same time that Stravinsky did, and they were rather good friends for a while. The famous Gnesin Institute of Moscow bears the name of this eminent composer and his three sisters, all pianists. Petersburg in —7. If we remember that the play had a tragic love triangle at its center, involving Pierrot, Harlequin, and Colombina—characters that were very much in vogue in St.
Petersburg at the time—we may appreciate the role Balagan might have played in the genesis of Petrushka. This, then, is the context in which Igor Stravinsky made his debut as a composer. This minute solo cantata is based on excerpts from a longer Pushkin poem. In three subsequent movements, it presents a year-old shepherdess sleeping in the forest, dreaming of love. Spied by a love-struck faun who pursues her, she jumps into the river, but, as the end of the piece triumphantly proclaims, she is miraculously saved from drowning.
The concert ends with the spectacular piano arrangement of three movements from Petrushka that Stravinsky made for Arthur Rubinstein in A film by R. Instead, he decided to write a short piece of musical theater that would not require large performing forces, and would be easy to produce and to take on tour.
He enlisted the help of Swiss novelist C. It was conceived as a combination of narration, pantomime, dance, and music, excluding singing. The Soldier who also happens to be an excellent fiddler is on his way home when he meets the Devil, disguised as an old man. The old man prevails upon the Soldier to surrender his violin in exchange for a magic book that will bring him all the wealth in the world.
The Soldier acquires the wealth, only to become quickly disillusioned. He loses his fortune, but recovers his violin after getting the Devil drunk during a card game. The Soldier cures a sick Princess with the sound of his violin, but loses the last round as the Devil takes hold of him just as he is about to reach his home village. The latter version was made for Werner Reinhart, a wealthy supporter of Stravinsky who was also an excellent clarinet player.
Preconcert Talk: Richard Taruskin 8 p. Dance of the Phoenician Slaves Pan Apollon.
Dance of the Muses The Transformation of Adonis. Round Dances of the Sylvan Gods. At the time of its legendary Paris premiere in , and for many years after, its stunning innovations drowned out all echoes of the past. This program highlights the indebtedness as well as the originality of the Rite, by surrounding it with the works of three composers whose music illuminates the Russian context from which Stravinsky emerged. Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov touched the careers of virtually every Russian composer of his generation and after, as a member of the St.
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He also met other young composers, including Maximilian Steinberg, a star pupil and later son-in-law of Rimsky. As a wedding gift, Stravinsky sent Steinberg the score of Fireworks—ironically, the very work that attracted the attention of Sergei Diaghilev, launching Stravinsky into international fame, while Steinberg was left to pursue an important career in the Soviet Union.
In addition to historical connections and some shared musical techniques, the works on this program have in common the theme of human encounter with the divine. Each of these encounters, furthermore, takes place in nature. The second movement begins with joyful preparations for the wedding of Fevroniya and the son of Prince Yuri.
Fevroniya escapes into the forest, where she dies, but she has saved the city of Kitezh: in response to her prayer, a golden mist descends on the city, rendering it invisible to the enemy. The Wagnerian final movement portrays the transfiguration of her soul before she enters the city, where she will enjoy eternal life with her prince. In the first movement, Jupiter bids farewell to the mortal Semele, after the encounter that left her pregnant with Dionysus.
Movements three and four enact the musical competition between Pan, whose frenzied piping rouses the forest gods to Dionysian dance and raucous laughter, and Apollo, whose restrained playing on the lyre leads to a graceful dance of the Muses. Steinberg intended it for the Ballets Russes, but Diaghilev showed little interest; he finally staged the middle portion of it as Midas, but his halfhearted investment resulted in a coolly received and quickly forgotten production.
Battle of Kerzhenets. Stravinsky claimed that the idea for the Rite came to him in a dream: scenes of pagan Russia, in which elders choose a sacrificial maiden who is forced to dance herself to death. In recent decades, however, several of the melodies have been located in folk anthologies published at the time. In the Rite, Stravinsky perfects the technique of quick-cutting between contrasting blocks of sound, maintaining constant momentum across the many disjunctions in musical texture.
He repeatedly creates rhythmic patterns only to shatter them the next moment. This difficulty did not come about, however, because Stravinsky did not know what was expected in ballet music, nor because he wished to reject its conventions altogether. Although the orchestral sound is clearly ill-suited to the delicate, gravity-defying movements of classical ballerinas, the construction of the. Rite is perfectly typical of ballet scores. It consists of a series of short dances, lasting two to three minutes apiece, each with its own characteristic rhythm and instrumental color. Dance historian Tim Scholl points out that, like La Sylphide, Giselle, and Swan Lake, this ballet begins with a diurnal scene of human activity, before transporting us to a nocturnal realm, populated by white-clad females connected with nature and the supernatural.
All this was apparently lost on the initial Parisian audience, most of which saw only grotesque distortions of the body, and heard only cacophony to the extent that they could hear the music at all over the shouting in the theater. Yet no amount of historical perspective can entirely tame the spirit of the Rite. Live performance still delivers an undeniable physical impact. Preconcert Talk: Byron Adams p. Performance Arnold Schoenberg — Pierrot lunaire, Op.
En blanc et noir Avec emportement Lent. The works performed on the concert this afternoon bear the marks of these fruitful modernist conversations through their dedications, aesthetic concerns, and a number of shared musical features. At this time that group of composers was also particularly concerned with utilizing the musical and textual materials of non-French cultures as a means for modernist musical experimentation.
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Similarly, in Pribaoutki, Stravinsky sets several highly rhythmic Russian folk texts to Russian folk melodies. He intentionally mismatches them, however, so that the traditional association of the melody is absurdly incongruent with the text. While there, he developed an interest in Indian classical music, and wrote to Stravinsky in the fall of to tell him about a number of recordings of Indian classical music he was excited to share with him upon his return.
Debussy, who had been a source of continual musical inspiration as well as a mentor or friend to many French musicians, had died in , and the pieces performed on this concert had been published as a supplement in a commemorative issue on Debussy of La revue musicale the month prior. Both provide striking tributes to Debussy using a stripped-down, rhythmically repetitive musical style.
Opening this Weekend: Bard Music Festival “Stravinsky and His World”
Preconcert Talk: Mary E. Davis p. Parade —17; arr.