Vocabulary Building Resources Word List Appendix page The list of Frequently Used Words in English included in the Appendix is a vital tool in the approach to vocabulary introduced in this book, and students will be asked to refer to it in some of the exercises in Part 2, as well as in the Focus on Vocabulary sections in Part 3.
First, it relects current usage of the language, whereas another list that is commonly referred to, the General Service List GSL , dates back to the s. Furthermore, both the GSL and the New General Service List NGSL published in were drawn largely from nonacademic sources, but the PICAE word list was drawn from a variety of curricular and extracurricular academic sources—from undergraduate textbooks to course descriptions, student magazines, and journal articles.
The publication of the AWL broke important ground in focusing attention on the vocabulary frequently used in academic writing, but it was based on a relatively small corpus drawn mainly from articles in academic journals, so it may be somewhat limiting as a reference tool for vocabulary study. Teachers can help students to become proicient in recognizing words belonging to the same family and to expand their knowledge of word forms see Word Parts, Part 2, Unit 3, in the Student Book.
It initially contained the top 5, words in the corpus ranked by average reduced frequency to discount multiple occurrences of a word that occur close to each other in the same document. The curricular material includes a wide range of academic subjects covering the four main academic disciplines, namely the humanities, social science, natural and formal science, and professions and applied sciences.
It also comprises lectures, seminars, textbooks, and journal articles at undergraduate as well as postgraduate levels.
Version 1. This list was used to select the collocations targeted in Part 2, Unit 4, and can serve as a useful reference for teachers and students as well. It is available online at pearsonpte.
In the same way that a word list can help teachers and students select useful words to study, these lists can help teachers choose useful phrases to focus on in classroom instruction. Teachers can also make the lists available to students who seem to be eager vocabulary learners. That way, they can share their knowledge of vocabulary. According to research, giving students responsibility for their learning in this way increases their involvement and motivation, making it more likely they will actually learn the vocabulary.
Teachers should hold students accountable in a friendly way by checking notebooks and study cards often, and by quizzing and testing frequently. Given the individualized approach to vocabulary study, teachers cannot use one test with the whole class except for the Focus on Vocabulary sections , but individualized testing is actually quite simple.
To this end, teachers should periodically give students review tests. One of these is Check My Words at mws. This section introduces the use of a vocabulary notebook for collecting useful words to be learned and word study cards for review. If students follow the procedures for choosing vocabulary from their reading and then use vocabulary notebooks and study cards as suggested, they should encounter each item enough times to ensure learning, though that will need to be reinforced with subsequent reviewing and testing.
Selecting Words and Phrases to Learn page 38 This unit trains students in an approach to new vocabulary that they can use for all their reading—in Advanced Reading Power 4 and in other books though not in their extensive reading. A key feature of this approach is that students independently select the vocabulary that will be useful for them to learn. They then develop a personalized study method using vocabulary notebooks and word study cards.
Teaching students how to select useful words to learn helps them avoid wasting time on words or phrases they may not need and makes them more responsible for their learning, which increases their involvement and motivation and leads to more learning. In order for the approach to succeed, students must understand the criteria behind choosing useful words. In fact, most students are relieved to have some way to focus their vocabulary learning, a task that may sometimes seem monumental to them. In the steps presented here, students will become familiar with the Word List in the Appendix, page in the Student Book, and be asked to relect on their own language needs.
Further practice in the process of selecting vocabulary to learn is provided in the Focus on Vocabulary sections at the end of each unit in Part 3. These sections also provide teachers with examples of exercise types for more vocabulary development. If teachers wish to give students additional practice choosing words to learn, the reading passages they use should not be too dificult.
Students will learn more from texts that contain some, but not too many, new words. If there are too many unknown words, students will have dificulty understanding the general ideas and will not be able to establish the context. Students may already have noticed words or phrases that are new to them; with this second reading and underlining, those words and phrases get more focused attention.
When students are working on Exercise 2 Student Book, page 41 , teachers can ask some of the more conident students to explain their choices to the class. Since some students might not recognize useful phrases, teachers might want to point some out in the text for example, a handful of, paying customers, higher education, and get in line in the text in Exercise 1. Then, in Exercise 9 Student Book, page 52 , they will review their notebooks and select words to put on study cards—giving them further opportunities to work with these words.
Studying Vocabulary page 44 Check What You Know page 44 Teachers should take the time to have students read and discuss the list of points here to make sure they thoroughly understand what is involved in learning vocabulary. Vocabulary Study Tools page 44 Dictionaries and Definitions page 44 Until recently it was believed that students should use only English-English dictionaries so they would have to think and study entirely in English. Many experts, including Nation and Grabe , now believe this is not necessarily the most effective way for students to learn vocabulary.
Even for higher-level students, a bilingual dictionary may sometimes be a more eficient tool for inding a deinition quickly, and if the deinition is in the native language, it may be more immediately accessible and easier to remember. Thus, students who wish to use bilingual dictionaries should be allowed to do so, though they should be encouraged, or even required, to consult monolingual learner dictionaries in English for some kinds of vocabulary work, such as work on usage and collocation.
As it says on page 45 in the Student Book, students would ideally have one of each kind.
- Night Road.
- The New Yorker (January 16, 2012).
- Sherlock in Shanghai: Stories of Crime And Detection!
- Learning Vocabulary in Grades 4-9;
- Clinical Microbiology Made Ridiculously Simple;
Another issue for some teachers is whether students should be allowed to write deinitions in their primary language in the margins of exercises or their vocabulary notebooks. The dictionary used for the exercises in Part 2 is the Longman Advanced American Dictionary, though the information about words taken from this dictionary is typical of other advanced learner dictionaries. Finding the Best Deinition page 45 Being able to choose the most appropriate meaning from among several in the dictionary is an important skill that can be developed with training. Teachers can easily create exercises that are similar to the ones here, preferably with a learner dictionary, as they tend to include more examples.
This will give them practice breaking down long noun phrases and identifying subjects or objects in embedded or other clauses. The examples are from the Student Book, page , a passage from an environmental textbook. Teachers can make a collection of such noun phrases, taken either from the Student Book or from other sources, and ask students to identify the word that is the key to the meaning of each phrase and to the syntax of the sentence. In these examples, the words are infrastructure, lifestyle, expansion.
Vocabulary Notebooks page 48 Teachers should require students to write all the information listed in the example for each vocabulary entry. Students may be tempted not to write some of the information, especially the sentence where they found the word, as it may seem time-consuming. Teachers can point out that it is this very fact—taking the time, making the effort—that increases the likelihood of students remembering and being able to use new words. Students do not have to write words in their notebooks exactly the same way they are shown in the example.
If a student feels that another system works better for him or her, he or she should by all means use that system. However, it is very useful to keep the words and meanings on separate but facing pages, in separate columns , so students can cover one side and test themselves.
As for the order in which they write the words and phrases, students should be encouraged to personalize their notebooks in whatever way works best for them. Others use regular-sized notebooks and choose categories for iling the words, such as by topic or part of speech.
Still others list the words and phrases according to where they were encountered. Teachers who feel that students could beneit from additional supervised work with the procedure for selecting vocabulary in a text and writing it in their notebooks can have students work with other passages that they have already read, either in Advanced Reading Power 4 or from other sources.
Word Study Cards page 49 With their study cards, as with vocabulary learning in general, students should be encouraged to adapt the system to their individual habits and learning styles. Some students, for example, prefer to use sticky notes instead of note cards. Each day or week, they stick the words they want to learn on the wall around their desk at home, on the refrigerator door, or in another place where they will see them often.
Then they remove the sticky notes one by one as they learn the words.
Individualized Testing of Vocabulary Since students are guided to choose their own vocabulary to learn, they will have different words in their notebooks, and teachers will need to individualize vocabulary testing. There are several ways to set up the quizzes: 1. Students can write ten new words or phrases from their vocabulary notebooks onto the form. Then they should close their notebooks and write the meanings. Teachers can collect the notebooks, make a list for each student, give the quiz in the next class, and then return the notebooks.
Teachers can elicit suggestions from students for words in their notebooks that they think would be useful for the whole class to learn. These can be written on the board with their meanings and the sentences where they were found, so the other students can add them to their notebooks. Teachers can then test the students on these words after about a week.
Any of the above testing procedures can be modiied by asking students to write a sentence including the target word or phrase, rather than simply giving the meaning. Note that the second part of the vocabulary quiz form tests students on collocations. In their presentations, they should write down the necessary information for each word or phrase e.
They should also mention any relevant information about the usage. Among the kinds of exercises that students could produce are the following examples: — Gapped sentences—If students write the sentences, teachers will need to check them. Otherwise, students can use sentences from dictionaries or other sources. Students can use the Lextutor website to create the cloze.
The example below was created from the passage in Unit 1, Exercise 1, on page 40 in the Student Book. Another option is to ask pairs of students to create maps on paper. The groups and their placement can be according to grammatical categories or other criteria.
Students can be asked to explain how each of the words or phrases relates to the key word in the middle. Alternatively, students can be asked to ind as many ways as possible to put together the words and phrases in sentences. Teachers can easily improvise charts like the ones in Part 2, Unit 3, Exercises 9—12 pages 78—81 in the Student Book or simple clusters with the different forms of words pulled from a reading text.
The Power of Words: Learning Vocabulary in Grades - PDF Free Download
UNIT2 Inferring Meaning from Context page 54 This unit introduces the concept of context and gives students instruction and practice in inferring meaning from context, irst in sentences and then in passages. Indeed, it is not always possible to guess meaning, especially not a precise deinition, from one encounter with a word in context, but it is often possible to get at least part of the meaning or a sense of what kind of word it is—enough to continue reading without having to stop and look it up.
This is one very important reason to encourage students to try to guess meaning. Another is that even a tentative guess can provide learners with a starting point in understanding and learning a word. Each later encounter with the word will help the learner narrow down the semantic possibilities and gather information about usage and collocation.
Instruction and practice in guessing meaning will help students make a habit of noticing and using context and allow them to develop a deeper understanding of the possible nuances in meaning and variations in usage. As with any skill, teachers should explain the rationale behind learning how to infer meaning from context. It is also important to warn students of the limits to what can be inferred and the need to expand on their understanding in future encounters and thus, the importance of extensive reading.
It may help to advise students to read ahead of the unknown word to see if a guess its in the larger context. Teachers should accept different answers as long as they make sense and students can justify them. The more they read, the more conidence they will develop in their ability to guess; as they gain conidence, they will also become more luent readers.
Inferring Meaning from the Sentence page 54 Teachers should go through these steps before students complete the Practice exercise on page Then they should do the irst item in the Practice exercise with the whole class, modeling out loud their own thinking process as they look for contextual clues to arrive at the general meaning.